Internet Safety: How do I keep my computer safe on the internet?

It seems like not a day goes by where we don't hear about some new kind of threat aimed at wreaking havoc across machines connected to the internet. While products other than Microsoft's are certainly vulnerable, anti-Microsoft sentiment coupled with the massive installed base make Microsoft products and irresistible target for hackers and "script kiddies".

Here are some things you can, and should, do to stay safe.